Friday, March 22, 2019

Physics is a prediction game

1. Academic physics is a prediction game.

2. Physicists make predictions by rearranging the symbols in an equation and sooner or later they find what they predicted —as if they put it there themselves— by fitting it into some white noise collected by an expensive machine built by the government for them to find what they predicted.

3. Physics boils down to data analysis.

4. Some of these predictions are more like divination or prophesy but we'll get to that in another article.

5. The nicest thing about being a physicist is that as soon as you become a Doctor of Philosophy, these magic letters (PhD) at the end of your name endow you with a magnificient power to corrupt any common word by redefining it; such a redefined word becomes the property of physics and cannot be understood or used by non-physicists.

6. In truth, a physicist is a linguist; he has the power to hijack and own any word by redefining it.

7. Some say that physicists corrupt the meanings of words to save their doctrines, just like their professional ancestors, the scholastic doctors of philosophy, the original anti-science.

8. But let's not be so harsh to these neo-scholastics who call themselves physicists because they thread the fine line between prediction and divination.

9. For instance, physicists redefined what we knew as the "scientific method" as the "not the scientific method".

10. They defined the negation of science as science.

11. Power corrupts and power over language corrupts absolutely.

12. Therefore, academic physicists are the most corrupt corrupters of humanity's knowledge bank.

13. I want to show you this with an example.

14. Let's suppose that physicists look at a tree in order to predict what kind of fruit that tree will produce.

15. As always physicists start by writing down Einstein's Field Equations appropriate for that field and they select a suitable set of solutions; they linearalize Einstein's equations because they cannot solve the original non-linear form of the equations; they add as many free parameters as necessary; they naturalize and normalize to eliminate all the annoying infinities by inventing some Nobel prize worthy mathematical tricks --in short, they effectively castrate Einstein's equations but they still call it Einstein's equations-- and finally, they make their predictions.

16. In this case, the prediction is: "This is an apple tree. We predict that the branches of this tree will soon be weighed down with apples!"

17. No surprises here. The equations have more free parameters than the number of predicted apples on the tree; all these parameters can be tuned to make any and all predictions. If you can make any possible predictions that's no longer called a prediction, that's called a guess.

18. But there was a glitch: The equations predicted that this tree will produce potatoes.

19. After discussing the issue with high ranking experimentalists, our guys were told that potatoes grow underground not on trees.

20. This fact caused a great crisis in physics.

21. Was Einstein wrong?

22. No. That’s out of the question.

23. Einstein can never be wrong.

24. Even Einstein's admitted blunders are turned into constants of nature by his disciples. Einstein is always right. Nature is wrong.

25. Then physicists asked: Are we on the cusp of new physics? What can we do? Who can save physics from this crisis?

26. Who but the genius on the wheelchair! Hawking! And that's what happened.

27. After long debates, the most elegantly ad hoc fine tuning was selected and the free parameters were tuned accordingly and the resulting mathematical beauty entered the physics literature as the Hawking Conjecture.

28. According to the Hawking Conjecture a potato that falls into a black hole exits from its anti-black hole as an apple.

30. So what we see as a tree now had been an anti-black hole about 777 billion years ago.

31. The number 777 was a side effect of the Hawking Conjecture and now it is enthroned as the king of all dimensionless numbers in physics, surpassing even the Fine Structure Constant in fame and mystery.

32. But the importance of this number for us is that it points to a time many many big bangs ago because our big bang happened just a mere 14 billion years ago. But Hawking's bang is the most ancient bang that happened even before all the big bangs defined by physicists (hot, cold, lukewarm etc.).

33. By the way this type of projecting intractable problems into the unknowable past is an old trick physicists use to solve unsolvable problems. Because it is an axiom of physics that the more distant a problem is it is most precisely solvable. If you push the problem to 777 billion years ago you can explain it in unheard of precision.

34. In short, the real beginning of time where this original bang happened is now called Hawking Epoch.

35. The essential property of this epoch is that everything that happened then is reflected from our big bang as what might be called as "big bang lensing" so that everything that happened in the infinitely remote Hawking Epoch is encoded in the Cosmic Background radiation that we observe today. How convenient, isn't it? This is the beauty of physics.

36. We are referring to the big bang that happened in the cosmological epoch called Hawking multi-multiverse.

37. Multi-multiverse is the multiverse of multiverses, which is proved by the old turtle hypothesis of the old cosmology.

38. In other words, because we see things the way they were billions of years ago, we see this anti-black hole as a tree now.

39. No need to go into further details because you will not understand rigorous mathematical equations used by physicists to prove that potatoes do not grow on trees.

40. You have to take their word for it.

41. Now the correct prediction is made: This is an apple tree.

42. Finally, the time comes and the tree flowers and little buds appear... but holy spherical cow! What is this?

43. The tree does not know that it is an apple tree and it is populated with cherries!

44. Physicists ask their classic rhetorical question again: Can Einstein be wrong?

45. Out of the question. Impossible. Not in a billion years.

46. Although we bastardized poor Einstein's equations, we made them linear, we added so many free parameters that we could even prove the existence of gods, any god from Zeus to Yahweh to Allah; and there were no traces of the original equations left and we chose a spacetime that gave what we wanted and we used the sophistical powers and the supreme physical authority of Hawking to predict apples and this idiot tree gives us cherries!

47. Is physics in crisis again?

48. No. Don't panic. This is a minor problem that we know how to fix.

49. This is known as “Physics is Never Wrong Conjecture.”

50. This properly follows from the Copernican Principle coupled to Mach’s Principle.

51. This happens in physics all the time.

52. This is actually not a physics problem but a linguistic problem.

53. To solve it we simply define cherries as apples.

54. Yes, we can do this and we do it all the time.

55. For instance, we are particle physicists right?

56. We study particles.

57. We believe that the world is made of elementary particles and we are the priestly accountants who find and classify these particles.

58. If the world is not made of particles we'd be out of work.

59. But it turns out that the world is NOT made of particles!

60. Our own experiments show that the world is not made of particles but fields and excitations of these fields.

61. There are no particles in the form of spherical balls as we still believe and will always believe.

62. But no worries.

63. We just call these fields and excitations "particles" and we draw them as colorful spherical balls.

64. We indicate their spin with arrows even though in physics spin has nothing to do with the spin of a spherical ball.

65. We draw gluons as springs obeying Hook's law although they dont.

66. This is the scientific method.

67. The true scientific method as used in physics.

68. So we simply say that cherries are apples in the Higgs field because it is the Higgs field that gives a cherry its appleness.

69. And if you ask about my own research, I personally work on the hot new field of dark apples which is a new branch in the larger branch of Dark Physics. More specifically, I try to find  mathematical relations between cherry-apples and black holes.

59. Einstein equations predict that colliding black holes produce organic apples and NASA is in the process of converting LIGO into a machine that will cherry pick those organic apples produced in the Hawking Epoch.

60. By a fundamental law of physics Einstein must always reduce to Newton, so of course, dark apple theory reduces to classical mechanics as all theories must in speeds slower than speed of light and we get apples from Newton's orchard. (If you didn't understand this sentence, see the appendix for its formal mathematical version.)

61. Now what is left is to find the flavor of these black apples spewed from Schwrascschilhd radius. (All misspelling of Schwardchshdilds reduce to its correct spelling in the appropriate spelling radius.)

62. Are they Granny Smiths? No. They are a new kind of apples called Daddy Albert's. Daddy Albert's dark apples.

63. It’s unbelievable but true that  Lisa Randall just published a book on this very subject. Whoaoa! When did she even write it??

64. Doctor Randall explains us how dark apples are the cause of dark matter and dark energy and how these dark stuff is the cause of the extinction of dinosaurs. Dr. Randall is sure to be right because she also sells high quality extra dimensions. If the extinction of dinosaurs did not happen in one of the boring existing 4 dimensions, it must have happened in one of her high quality dimensions where anything can happen. 

65. Lisa Randall is one of the finest dark minds, so you should buy her book if you want to be enlightened. Yes, her dark mind can enlighten you. This is proved by Randall's Dark Mind Conjecture.

66. Yes, with the support of Lisa Randall, dark apple theory has become the best candidate to explain dark matter, in yet another most elegant circular reasoning so much loved by physicists.

67. After all they are both dark, right What other proof do you need?

68. But are there dark apples?

69. If there aren't we can easily define them and LIGO, now renamed APPL, will observe it for us.

70. Don't forget physics=science.

Monday, March 18, 2019

Black Holes do not exist

This is an email Stephen J. Crothers sent out about black holes and other absurdities promoted by academic physicists. I copy it in its entirety.


Associate Professor Alan Duffy,,
Swinburne University of Technology and Lead Scientist of the Royal Institution Australia,

Dear Sir,

I note your recent comments on your Facebook page in reply to Mr. David White's remarks. Since you have deliberately removed Mr. White's comments, and mine too, from your Facebook page, here are some of them again.

“Hi David, I provide these posts freely with no promise of replying to every statement.

“However because you have asked nicely I am happy to reply this ONE TIME and hopefully retaining my (never actually claimed?) good bloke status - I have the signal of colliding black holes (the waveform) in my office so I will ask you and your colleagues to first explain the detected signal at LIGO before I enjoy reviewing your proof on the existence of black holes (which again have actually been measured). A theory must explain all evidence to date before proposing additional effects... here’s a wonderful thought piece by Nobel Laureate Gerard ‘t Hooft on how to make a good theory/theorist (apologies if you’ve already read this). Good luck with your future efforts!” ---Alan Duffy

You didn't address any of the points concerning black holes raised by Mr. White, introducing instead various diversions to relieve you, it seems, of providing any explanations of anything.

I have the signal of colliding black holes (the waveform) in my office so I will ask you and your colleagues to first explain the detected signal at LIGO before I enjoy reviewing your proof on the existence of black holes (which again have actually been measured). ---Alan Duffy

That's not right, the 'waveform' in your office notwithstanding.

According to the astronomers and cosmologists the finite mass of their black hole is concentrated in zero volume, infinite density, and infinite gravity. But no finite mass has zero volume, infinite density, and infinite gravity. So the black hole does not exist [1,2].

The astronomers and cosmologists unwittingly give their black holes two different escape velocities and no capacity for an escape velocity, simultaneously, at the same place [3]. But nothing can have two different escape velocities and no capacity for an escape velocity, simultaneously, at the same place [3]. So black holes do not exist.

The astronomers and cosmologists give their black holes a non-intensive temperature, in violation of the zeroth and second laws of thermodynamics [4-6]. The astronomers and cosmologists give their black holes a non-extensive entropy, again in violation of the laws of thermodynamics [4-6]. So black holes do not exist.

The mathematical theory of black holes requires that the absolute value of a real number take on negative values, which is impossible [7], or, equivalently, that a sphere located at the origin of coordinates, when moved to some other place in the coordinate system, leaves its centre behind, which is impossible [7,8]. So the black hole does not exist. So LIGO did not detect black holes.

LIGO did not detect gravitational waves either. In 2015 LIGO's secret magical number was 250,000. No doubt this secret number has increased since then because it is limited only by computer memory and the stamina of computer programmers [9,10].

General Relativity cannot localise its gravitational energy [1,2] so there are no 'gravitational waves'.

General Relativity violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum of a closed system and is thereby in conflict with a vast array of experiments [9,10]. To satisfy the usual conservation laws Einstein constructed his 'pseudotensor' for the energy-momentum of his 'gravitational field alone'. To this he added his energy-momentum tensor for material sources. The sum is not a tensor owing to the pseudotensor, in conflict with Einstein's requirement that all the equations of physics be tensorial and thereby coordinate independent. But his pseudotensor is also coordinate dependent. Einstein and his followers nevertheless justify it because, they say, it acts 'like a tensor' under linear transformations of coordinates. Since it then acts 'like a tensor', it can be contracted. The result is a first-order intrinsic differential invariant. But the pure mathematicians proved in 1900 that first-order intrinsic differential invariants do not exist [9,10]. Thus, Einstein's pseudotensor is nothing but a meaningless concoction of mathematical symbols, so it cannot be used to represent any physical phenomena and can't be used to do any calculations.

What do Einstein and his followers do? They give it physical meaning and do calculations with it, including determination of the energy of 'gravitational waves'. It is also claimed by Einstein and his followers that his 'gravitational waves' propagate at the speed of light. That too is demonstrably false – the speed of propagation of his alleged waves is coordinate dependent: change the coordinates and the speed of propagation is altogether different to that of light [1,2,9].

The LIGO-VIRGO Collaboration has never published a calibration curve for detector output from a known laser input, in the attometre range. Professor Danzmann, of the VIRGO Collaboration has admitted, in writing, to Professor Wolfgang Engelhardt (retired of the Max Planck Institute), that the required calibration curve does not exist! The reason is simple: it can't be measured. So LIGO cannot measure to the attometre range or better, contrary to the claims of the LIGO-VIRGO Collaboration.

A theory must explain all evidence to date before proposing additional effects... here’s a wonderful thought piece by Nobel Laureate Gerard ‘t Hooft on how to make a good theory/theorist (apologies if you’ve already read this). ---Alan Duffy

The webpage you cite, by 't Hooft, is not a scientific argument and contains nothing of scientific merit. One can but wonder why you even cited it. 't Hooft has committed numerous serious mistakes, explained in [10].

Yours faithfully,
Stephen J. Crothers

[1] Crothers, S.J., LIGO -- Its Claims for Black Holes and Gravitational Waves | EU2017,

[2] Crothers, S.J., A Critical Analysis of LIGO's Recent Detection of Gravitational Waves Caused by Merging Black Holes, Hadronic Journal, Vol. 39, 2016,

[3] Crothers, S.J., Black Hole Escape Velocity, Sky Scholar, 2018,

[4] Robitaille, P.-M., How are Stars Formed? The Standard Model: Gravitational Collapse, Black Holes, and The Big Bang!

[5] Robitaille, P.-M., Does Gravitational Collapse Occur? Insight from the Laws of Thermodynamics!

[6] Robitaille, P.-M., Intensive and Extensive Properties - A Note of Caution!

[7] Crothers, S.J., On Corda’s ‘Clarification’ of Schwarzschild’s Solution, Hadronic Journal, Vol. 39, 2016,

[8] Crothers, S.J., Black Hole Geometry Analyzed, Sky Scholar, 2018,

[9] Crothers, S.J., Gravitational Waves: Propagation Speed is Co-ordinate Dependent, Poster Presentation, 2018 April APS Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, presented on 14th April 2018.

[10] Crothers, S. J., General Relativity: In Acknowledgement Of Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate, 4 August, 2014,

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Mathematics is a game

1. Mathematics is a game.

2. What is the game?

3. The game is to define the rules of the game.

4. Mathematicians play the game by proposing new rules.

5. The goal of the game is to have your rule registered in the rulebook.

6. A rule is registered in the rulebook when, after lengthy plays (negotiations), a consensus is reached.

7. The ultimate goal is to have your new rule registered under your own name but you have to be an exceptional player for this to happen.

8. In addition to the rules of the game, mathematicians also play the game of defining boundaries and limits.

9. One important limit is the limit of analysis.

10. Analysis is the process of asking a series of questions.

11. But each answer creates new questions, so analysis is infinitely deep.

12. Mathematicians put a stop to the analytical questions by defining an artificial boundary; they then accept this defined boundary as the true boundary.

13. Mathematicians can accept a boundary they defined as the true boundary because they are players; in order to be a player you must accept to play by the rules.

14. For instance, there is an accepted limit on how much a mathematician can query the meaning of the word "infinity"; they must stop at the current limit set by Cantor.

15. Until Cantor's redefinition of infinity, mathematicians did not question its traditional definition.

16. Now, Cantor's definition is the new semantic bottom of infinity.

17. But in the future a new Cantor will reveal that the semantic bottom had not been reached yet.

18. Another example of conventional nature of mathematical boundaries: the boundaries of geometry set by Euclid were believed to be true boundaries until the 19th century when mathematicians realized that Euclid’s boundaries were conventional only; after this realizations mathematicians were able to define new geometries that were not bound by Euclid's definitions.

19. Mathematics has a characteristic mental construct that does not exist outside of the mathematical playground: the foolproof, absolute mathematical proof.

20. This type of absolute proof exists only in mathematics because mathematics is a game, that is, a closed system with its own rules and boundaries.


The 5 characteristics of game according to Johan Huizinga [my comments in brackets]:

1. Play is free.
[Mathematics is free. Anyone can play mathematics without spending any money.]

2. Play is not “ordinary” or “real” life.
[Mathematics is not “ordinary” or “real life” because mathematics is a mental construct.

3. Play is distinct from “ordinary” life both as locally and duration.
[Mathematics is outside of space and time.]

4. Play creates order. Play demands order absolute and supreme.
[Mathematics creates order. This is the reason for the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in describing natural phenomena. Mathematical defines the chaotic world around us as orderly which brings meaning.

5. Play is connected with no material interest  and no profit can be gained from it.
[Mathematics is connected with no material interest and no profit can be gained from it. Mathematicians consider the uselessness of mathematics its most important virtue.]


--- Johan Huizinga's Homo Ludens.

The absurd notion of particle in physics

This is the transcript of a talk by physicist David Kaplan. The talk is on YouTube. I numbered each sentence for easy reference.

Table of Contents
Section I. Summary of sentences
Section II. The transcript
Section III. My Comments
Section IV. Questions


Section I.
Summary of sentences

Here I summarize Dr. Kaplan’s sentences the way I understood them.

Sentences from 1 to 6 redifine space as Higgs field.

Sentences 7 to 13 compare a magnetic field to the Higgs field. Magnetic field is a force field because it varies with distance from the source but Higgs field is not a force field because it is uniform (because it does not have a source). Both the magnetic field and the Higgs field are turned on.

Sentences from 14 to 20 state the effects of the Higgs field on particles. Higgs is not a force field so it has no inertial or motion-giving effect but instead it gives particles their mass. Electron is an example of a particle taking its mass from the Higgs field.

Sentences 19 and 22 introduce particles with zero mass. These must be the particles that do not interact with the Higgs field. Why? Zero mass particles always travel with the speed of light. This is prescribed by relativity. So it seems that Higgs field is also enforcing the speed limit for Einstein.

Sentences 23 to 26 explain that without the Higgs field there is no matter.

Sentences 27 to 30 state that particles do not exist. In particle physics “particle” is just another name for the word “wave”. We can substitute the word “wave” whenever physicists use the word “particle”.

Sentences 31 to 35 state that all electrons are same only their motion can differ.

Sentences 36 to 37 state that there must be an associated particle for any field. (Where are these fields?)

Sentences 38 to 42 state explicitly that there are no particles but only waves. Particles are waves. And waves are not fundamental but the field is.

Sentences from 43 to 48 state that Higgs field gives mass to the particles of the Standard Model. (That's a curious statement because there are no particles in the Standard Model but only waves and fields.)

Sentences 49 to 51 state that Higgs field is the fifth force of nature (contradicting what he said on #15.)

Sentences 52 to 54 state that Higgs particle explained the weakness of the weak force.


Section II.
The transcript

(Read the transcript or jump to my comments.)

1. I thought I would explain the Higgs without writing anything down.

2. Much easier for me.

3. There are basically three things you need to know to understand rudimentarily what the Higgs is.

4. The first thing, is that the Higgs, there is a Higgs field, that's the most important thing.

5. The Higgs field is turned on in our universe.

6. Higgs is turned on.

7. And a field you experience before in a physical way which is the magnetic field of two magnets.

8. Let's say you have two magnets and let's say that the north ends are facing each other and you try to push them together and you feel the repulsion or you put one north, one south and you feel the attraction.

9. You can feel it even though they are not touching each other.

10. The simplest description of that is that there is a magnetic field around the magnets and they are being manipulated as you get closer and farther and because of that it changes the energy and create forces.

11. That's a non-uniform field because it is strong near the magnet and weak far away from it.

12. But it's the electromagnetic field in a special way turned on.

13. And it's turned on around this magnet because the magnet is a source of that field.

14. What makes sense in the current theory of matter is that there is a Higgs field or something like it some kind of field that's turned on everywhere in space and this field everywhere in space has an effect on particles.

15. And the effect it has is not a force because it's not stronger in some place and weaker in others, it's uniform everywhere.

16. So which way it will force it?

17. There is no force.

18. But it has an even more dramatic effect which is it gives a mass to fundamental particles, namely, just the effect on the electron as it passes through this Higgs field, that is, it acts as if it has mass; it effectively has mass.

19. That's the best description electron, particle with mass.

20. And the fact that it has mass means it can slow down and get trapped in an atom.

21. Amazingly enough, there are particles... particles can have zero mass and the photon, the particle of light, is a particle with zero mass, as far as we can tell.

22. And zero mass particles always travel at the speed of light according to relativity.

23. So, the fact that the electron is in a Higgs field and gets its mass due to that and slows down means that it can be trapped in atoms and because it can be trapped in atoms then matter can form, and atoms can form, molecules can form which require electron bounce states, solid objects can form in the universe as we know it.

24. Otherwise there is no matter as we know it.

25. There are other ways things get mass but the electron mass is crucial for the structure of matter that we see.

26. That's the first thing.

27. The second thing you need to know is that particles in the sort of deepest description are not fundamental.

28. An individual particle is not a fundamental object.

29. [An individual particle] is a vibration, if you will, or a wave, of a field.

30. So in fact all particles are from fields.

31. So the electron itself, that thing that lives in an atom, is an excitation, or a wave, in the electron field.

32. And this is one of the reasons why all electrons are exactly the same.

33. They have exactly the same mass, exactly the same spin, exactly the same electric charge, exactly, every electron exactly the same.

34. The difference is how fast it is moving.

35. And this can be in any direction too.

36. But all vibrations are of the same field.

37. So for every particle there is an associated field that lives throughout space.

38. It's like saying there is a lake and you throw pebble in the lake and the ripple goes across the surface of the lake.

39. The ripple contains energy and it moves from one place to another but the ripple is not fundamental; the lake itself is fundamental.

40. That lake means you can have waves going across it.

41. So the particles, which we think fundamental particles actually they are the waves and it is the field that is fundamental, in our best description of these things.

42. That's the case.

43. Take the Higgs.

44. The Higgs field, if there is a Higgs field or some kind of field has this effect, that gives mass to the electron, then the Higgs field predicts the existence of the Higgs particle, and there should be a Higgs particle.

45. It doesn't necessarily predict what the mass of that particle is, but it predicts its existence.

46. So, seeing a Higgs particle tells us what is the field, the information about the field that is having this effect on all matter.

47. We can study detailed properties of the particle and that tells us the detailed properties of the field itself.

48. And how it interacts with rest of the fields in the Standard Model of the particle physics which is basically a list of all known fundamental particles and the interactions that they have which are basically all of the forces in nature.

49. The Higgs particle and field together itself actually represent the fifth force of nature.

50. It's like a mass force.

51. You can exchange Higgs particle and that would be like two particles interacting through this new force which is extraordinarily weak in energies we normally live at but lives just fine at high energies.

52. The third important thing is that the Higgs particle is predicted in mid-60s really in 1967 when Steve Weinberg put it in a context of other speculative fields and particles that we knew about and all together it became the Standard Model.

53. It became the way particles of the Standard Model get mass.

54. It explained the weakness of the weak force and it took Sheldon Glashow's model that unified two forces of the model, so this is really confirmation that model.


Section III.

My comments on Dr. Kaplan’s statements

References are to the numbered sentences on Section II.

The main topic of Dr. Kaplan’s talk is the Higgs field but since Higgs field is defined as the space itself (#5) and space is defined as the agent that gave mass to matter, Dr. Kaplan necessarily talks about particles and matter, our main interest. Indeed, our aim is to understand physicists’ definition of particle (if such an understanding is possible).

Dr. Kaplan says that there are three things we need to know to understand the Higgs field.

The first is that Higgs is a field. (Is it surprising that something which is called a “field” is a field?) A field is a grid and each point of the grid has a number associated with it. So, a field is a mathematical construct.

#5 defines the Higgs field as universal.
#5. The Higgs field is turned on in our universe.
This means that Higgs field is space. It can also be seen as the new ether. But unlike the old ether, Higgs field interacts with stuff that move in it.

How does Dr. Kaplan know that Higgs field is universal? He doesn’t. Remember that the experiments are limited to electricity and magnetism and the experimental environment is an artificial environment of extremely high energies that do not exist in the everyday world. There is no evidence that the results of these collider conditions exist in everyday world. (See Question 17.)

Also, Dr. Kaplan does not know and can never know the totality of existence.

Prof. Kaplan then uses the example of a magnetic field to give us an idea what a field is. We know how magnets attract and repel each other. Magnets have polarity.
#9. You can feel [the magnetic field] even though they are not touching each other.
#11. [Magnetic field] is a non-uniform field because it is strong near the magnet and weak far away from it.
#12. The electromagnetic field, in a special way, is turned on.
It’s not clear what he means by “turned on.” Can Higgs field be turned on and off?
#13. And it’s turned on around this magnet because the magnet is a source of that field.
Next he explains that in analogy to this magnetic field there is another field which is turned on everywhere in the universe, the Higgs field.

He claims that matter is created by the Higgs field.

This is another meaningless sentence because we don’t know what he means by “matter.” He never defined it. Does matter refer to the individual units that used to be called “atoms”? It’s not easy to define matter and physicists never do. And using such a fundamental concept without definition leads to meaningless sentences and to absurd conclusions.
#14. [...] Higgs field [is] turned on everywhere in space and this field everywhere in space has an effect on particles.
Let’s pay special attention anytime Dr. Kaplan mentions the word “particle”. We want to understand the meaning he ascribes to this word in that particular context.

What does Dr. Kaplan mean when he writes that Higgs field “has an effect on particles”? Do you imagine that he is talking about particles as spherical balls? No. He defines in #29 that particles are waves. So, he is just calling waves particles. Let’s be clear about this. He created a nickname for the word “wave” and this nickname is “particle”. What exists as a physical entity is a wave not particle. He just defined “particle” to be a synonym for “wave.” So, anytime he writes a “particle” we should understand a “wave”. Therefore, #14 can be written as “Higgs field has an effect on waves.” But even this does not make sense because the field and the wave are not different entities.

Dr. Kaplan wants us to believe that there are particles and there are waves. He wants us to believe that particles and waves exist as two independent entities and both are observed. This is not true. Particles exists only as a label which is nothing more than a placeholder for the word “wave”. Physicists like to represent these waves as spherical balls. Are there waves that are shaped like spherical balls? No. You would never see a wave represented as a wave but always as a spherical ball. This is so silly. This must be an inside joke among physicists that we as laymen are not privy to. Or, Dr. Kaplan is drowning in an ocean of rhetorical sophistry of his own creation.

#15 says that the effect that Higgs field has on particles “is not a force”. Let’s keep this in mind because in sentences #49 and #50 he will define Higgs field as “the fifth force of nature.” This is a contradiction. The Higgs field can be defined either as a force or not a force. It cannot be defined as force and not force at the same time. But physicists do not respect contradictions, in other words, contradictions are legal in physics. Physicists are not bound by the Aristotelian logic. In physics something can be both itsef and not-itself at the same time.
#15. And the effect it has is not a force because it’s not stronger in some place and weaker in others, it’s uniform everywhere.
#49. The Higgs particle and field together itself actually represent the fifth force of nature.
#50. It's like a mass force.
The Higgs field has another effect on the particle, it gives it [inertial] mass. So substituting wave for particle again we may say that “Higgs gives waves on the field their mass”. Do you think waves have mass?

I may understand waves with mass, after all, they have energy but what I’m really questioning is why are physicists insisting on calling waves “particles”?

#18. But it has an even more dramatic effect which is it gives a mass to fundamental particles, namely, just the effect on the electron as it passes through this Higgs field, that is, it acts as if it has mass; it effectively has mass.

This is another standard rhetorical device used routinely by physicists. You first make a claim “as if” then in the following sentence you make it effective. The result is sophistry.
#19. That’s the best description of electron, particle with mass.
So, not “as if” but electron is really a particle with mass.

Here Dr. Kaplan again uses the word “particle”. Which definition of particle is he using? He may be using “particle” with its old uncorrupted definition of “spherical ball.” If so, this sentence is a worthless piece of sophistry because we know that in sentences #29 and #41 he denies the existence of particles as spherical balls. So after substituting wave for particle #19 simply becomes “electron is a wave with mass.”
#20. The fact that [electron] has mass means it can slow down and get trapped in an atom.
Here Dr. Kaplan is using the old and deprecated model of the atom as a spherical ball. He is describing a fairy tale world. In reality, atom is not a spherical ball. Again substituting wave for particle we get “the unit of wave has mass and it can slow down and get trapped in another type of wave we labeled an atom.” (The electron which is defined as the unit of charge is really the unit of charged waves.)

#21 introduces particles without mass. So, making our usual substitution of wave to particle, #21 becomes “there are waves that do not have mass. And photon is such a wave.”

#22 tells us that waves without mass travel always at the speed of light according to general relativity.

In #23 Dr. Kaplan again reverts to atoms-as-spherical-balls model and makes electron which is a wave get trapped in atoms. With #23 he effectively admits that he is a liar because if electron is a spherical ball, as he assumes here, it cannot be a wave.

#24 claims that without Higgs field there would not be matter. I always find it interesting that physicists make observations by colliding two electrical beams then they generalize their observations to the entire universe, that is, they define the universe to be made of electric beam particles. But this reasoning is faulty. Let me explain with an analogy. Let's create two beams of water. Suppose that I accelerated water beams to high speeds so that as the result of the collision of the two beams, the constituent atoms “scattered” and registered on my sensors as atoms of Hydrogen and Oxygen. This way I learned that water is made of Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms. Is it a good scientific practice to conclude from my water experiment that all matter in the universe is made of Hydrogen and Oxygen? No. All I can conclude scientifically is that water beams I used in the experiment are made of Hydrogen and Oxygen. Same for physicists. They can only conclude that their beams are made of some particles. They cannot generalize from the collision of electric beams to matter in general.

#27 is very important because now Mr. Kaplan will confess again that he has been lying about his usage of the words “particle” and “fundamental”.
#27 ... particles are not fundamental.
This is a meaningless sentence. He assumes in #29 and #41 that particles do not exist. There are only fields and waves. If particles do not exist what does it mean to say that they are not fundamental. They cannot be fundamental or not fundamental. They don’t exist.
#28 An individual particle is not a fundamental object.
Not only a particle is not fundamental but it is not an object either because a particle is just another name for wave as he states in #29 and #41.
#29 [A particle] is a vibration, or a wave, of a field.
Dr. Kaplan is using the word “or” to connect “vibration” ana “wave.” This means that he considers vibration and wave to be interchangeable. But this is not true. Waves may be vibration, but not all vibrations are waves. Simple harmonic motion of a wave on a string is vibration but the ball is not a wave. Is Dr. Kaplan confusing the sinusoidal wave used to describe the up and down motion of the ball with the ball itself? This is a textbook example of confusing the map with the territory.

Can a particle defined as a spherical ball be a wave at the same time? No. There are no particles. There are only waves. Dr. Kaplan tries to imply that there are two distinct things, one is a particle and the other is a wave. No. There is only wave. Wave is not caused by a particle. Or a particle is not acting like a wave. As in the example of waves on a lake (#38-#41), there are only waves and he calls waves particles. More correctly, up to here, he has been calling waves particles but now he is saying that he was lying. There are no particles. There are only waves.
#30 All particles are from fields.
This sentence is an insult to our intelligence. Let me remind Dr. Kaplan that he admitted in #29 that there are no particles and that particle is his nickname for wave, therefore if he is still talking about particles he must be kidding us or fooling himself.

We can always replace his particle with wave. Then #30 becomes “all waves are from fields.” And this makes perfect sense. Waves are properties of field but particles are not. Or more correctly, there are no fields distinct from waves. The field is the wave.

Sentence #31 specifically defines the electron as a wave.
#31. So the electron itself, that thing that lives in an atom, is an excitation, or a wave, in the electron field.
#32 says that because an electron “is an excitation or wave in the electron field” (#31) “all electrons are exactly the same.” This is not surprising. The electron is defined as the unit charge. So, by definition all electrons must be the same. Imagine stating, as a great revelation, that “all meter sticks are 1 meter long.” Of course. Meter is defined as a unit. By definition they are all the same.

In #37 he is still talking about particles.
#37. So for every particle there is an associated field that lives throughout space.
Dr. Kaplan continues to insult our intelligence by trying to incorporate the concept of particle into his theory of fields and waves. Fields and waves do not need particles.

Dr. Kaplan admitted in #29 and #41 that there are no particles. What he calls particle is just a wave. He takes great pride in calling waves particles. Why?

Again, making our usual substitution, #37 becomes “for every wave there is an associated field that lives throughout space.” (How do these field interect in the wild?)

He is saying that each field has its own characteristic wave. Like its own characteristic amplitude, characteristic frequency and so on? See Question 15.

#38 introduces waves in the lake analogy to cement the fact that particles do not exist in nature.
#38. It's like saying there is a lake and you throw pebble in the lake and the ripple goes across the surface of the lake.
#41 leaves no room for doubt: “Particles are waves”
#41. So the particles, which we think fundamental particles actually they are the waves and it is the field that is fundamental, in our best description of these things.
Dr. Kaplan admits once again that there are no particles and classifies non-existent particles as not fundamental.

Making the substitution, #41 becomes: “Waves are waves.”

So all his insistence on particles was for this tautology: waves are waves. And consequently, “waves are not fundamental but waves are fundamental.”

Dr. Kaplan is still trying to use all kinds of rhetorical sophistry in order not to give up the sacred concept of particle.

He tries to confuse us about fundamentality issue which he introduces as red herring. But we see through his sophistry and lies.

In #44 Dr. Kaplan still tries to mount particles into fields and this time he says that Higgs field predicts a Higgs particle.

Substituting wave for particle: “Higgs field predicts a Higgs wave.”

Again this makes sense. But “Higgs field predicts a Higgs particle” does not make sense. There are not particles in the Standard Model of Particle Physics invented by physicists.
#49: The Higgs particle and field together itself actually represent the fifth force of nature.
#50 It’s like mass force.
But in #15 he stated that Higgs field was not a force.
#15 And the effect [the Higgs field] has is not a force because it's not stronger in some place and weaker in others, it's uniform everywhere.
As mentioned above, in academic physics contradictions are legal. Higgs field can be a force and not force at the same time. This contradiction can be reconciled by old scholastic technique of rhetorical sophistry and doubletalk.

Section IV

Do we have a better understanding of the definition of a particle in physics? Yes. We now know that experimental data reveal no particles but because experiments are done by “particle” physicists they must interpret data as particles. So they inject the word “particle” into their theories and models superficially by rhetorical sophistry as we have seen done skillfully by Dr. Kaplan.


Of course, Dr. Kaplan would vehemently deny our accusations that he is using doubletalk to save the sacred doctrine of atomic materialism. He will say that this is simply a popular talk aimed at laymen and it should not be taken seriously. He would add that if I really wanted to know Higgs or what fields and particles are I should study Quantum Mechanics for 25 years and earn my physics degree.

But my argument has nothing to do with quantum mechanics or any other physics theory. My argument is about physics’ initial assumptions, axioms and doctrines. Axioms are independent of mechanics, theories and models. They are fundamental assumptions and they are valid for the entire physics.

The most fundamental doctrine of physics is the atomic materialism. Physics assume that the world is made of indivisible “particles”. Yes. Particles as in spherical ball particles. This doctrine cannot be questioned or changed or modified. A physicist will always fit all experimental data into the doctrine of atomic materialism, by faking it if necessary, as done here by Dr. Kaplan.

We recognize this method of saving the doctrine blindly against all evidence to save the doctrine. This was famously done by scholastic doctors of philosophy practicing for millenia up to the time of Galileo of the so-called scientific revolution. But we see that, the Doctors of Philosophy never changed their scholastic habits, they just changed their name and started to call themselves “physicists”. That’s why I call the academic physicists the neo-scholastics.

This is the fundamental dilemma of physics: How to explain a world without particles with particles. And Dr. Kaplan showed us how this is done easily by rhetorical sophistry and doubletalk and by semantic acrobacy.

Section IV Questions

1. What is space?

2. What is field?

3. What is mass?

4. What is the reason why some particles do not interact with the Higgs field and remain without mass (the so called zero mass particles)?

5. What is matter?

6. Is the Higgs field the new ether? It permeates the entire space, therefore it is space, and things move in it. This sounds like ether. But ether had zero resistence, the Higgs field interacts with “particles” that move in it and gives inertial mass to them.

7. What does it mean to say that Higgs field is “turned on?”

8. How does Dr. Kaplan know that the Higgs field is universal? He doesn’t. But in physics it is standard practice to generalize local experiments to the universe as a whole without justification.

9. How come the Higgs field alters the particle by giving mass to it but the newly created massive particle does not alter the Higgs field? This is another evidence for the idea that Higgs field is space itself because without the Higgs field nothing will have mass.

10. Can the Higgs field be turned on and off? If so, under what conditions it is turned on and off? It seems to me that, it cannot be turned off because it does not have a source (see #15).

11. How do we distinguish the Higgs field from space?

12. What kind of mass the Higgs field give the particle? Inertial or gravitational? Or is it a new kind of mass, maybe “electromagnetic mass”? “Wave mass”?

13. Can we separate the wave from the field? (#38-#42) Can there be waves without field? This is an old question. In the 19. century physicists thought that waves needed a medium, such as the ether to exist.

14. Is there an electron field in the atom? But atom is not a spherical ball. Atom must also be a wave. What does it mean to say that the electron is a wave that lives inside another wave we call atom?

15. What is a characteristic wave? Amplitude, wavelength and frequency defines a wave. Maybe we obtain a characteristic wave by keeping some or all of these properties constant? So the field A will always have a characteristic wave where amplitude=a, wavelength=a’ and frequency=a’’’. But the field B will have a characteristic wave of amplitude=b, wavelength=b’ and frequency=b’’’. And so on, for every field.

16. Does the extreme environment in colliders artificially created by physicists exist in the everyday world? How do physicists justify this hidden assumption? The hidden assumption is that particles created under extreme and artificial environment of colliders also make up the everyday world objects. One objection to this assumption may be the exceedingly short lifetimes of fundamental particles such as quarks. Were matter made of quarks, object we observe in the everyday world would be extremely volatile and unstable. But they are not. This contradiction usually is explained away as “single quarks may be short-lived but groups of quarks including gluons are stable”. This sounds like an hoc explanation.



—David Kaplan's video is here.

--- A good explanation of quantum fields. 6:39: "Quantum Field Theory is a model that governs how quantum fields interact. A quantum field is a set of quantum properties assigned to every point in space. Each one existing alongside the others allowing to interact. And the energy in any field higher its vacuum state will be seen as a particle carrying the properties of that field."
There are no particles! The sentence "And the energy in any field higher its vacuum state will be seen as a particle carrying the properties of that field" should really be, "we will call excitations of the field 'particles' to save our sacred doctrine of atomic materialism." So he thinks that by drawing excitations (squares) as spherical balls, he turns excitations into particles. These are faked particles. This is fairy tale physics.

Science is the magic that actually works

What is the meaning of this sentence?

Science is the magic that actually works.

I guess physicists do not realize that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a sentence and an equation. We know this from George Boole's work.

First of all, an equation is an equality of ratios stated with standard units. A true equality of ratios, on the other hand, is always stated with relative units. But in physics, most equations that look like an equality of ratios are not equality of ratios. Physicists routinely divide an equation into two parts by assigning a name to each part thus one side of the equation becomes just a label or a placeholder. The equation had been divided into two definitions (but still connected by the equality sign). Physicists still read these definitions as equations. The reason for this confusion is that in physics the fundamental symbol that makes the equation, the equality sign, is a loaded symbol. It can be used to make a definition, a proportionality, an equation and also an identity.

When a physicist repeats the official physics propaganda that "you should learn the equations because the equations are precise, sentences are not," we can only laugh at his naiveté. How can physics equations be precise when it is created by using the most loaded symbol in physics? But this is the standard rhetorical device physicists use to stave off any non-physicists who question their sacred doctrine. I showed elsewhere that “learning more physics” is not necessary to question the doctrine, because doctrine comes before physics.

We can easily convert any equation into the form of a sentence or convert a sentence into the form of an equation. This is no different than the relationship between geometry and algebra. The same idea can be expressed algebraically or geometrically.

What is fundamental is the ratio and the equalities of ratios. Equation is not fundamental and it is not precise; the equation is the Latin of physics.


I’ve known John Baez since Usenet days. He was the moderator of the newsgroup sci.physics.research. He was always ready to help with physics questions and he had a talent to explain even the most difficult concepts in simple language. I learned a lot physics from him and sci.physics.research. But today I intend to analyze this sentence of his:

Science is the magic that actually works.    

I want to understand if this sentence has a meaning and if so what it is. I also like to practice my claim that any sentence can be expressed as an equation.

So let

S = Science
M = Magic
M' = Magic that works

Obviously M and M' are not synonyms or equivalent. They are different things. Magic refers to something impossible that a magician fools you into believing that he made the impossible happen. The magician does this by fooling the observer. Therefore, by definition, magic means that the impossible did not happen but faked. Magic that works is not magic. In fact, “magic that works” simply means “magic that is not magic.” But a thing cannot be itself and not be itself at the same time. (But in physics things can be and not be at the same time, as we will see below.)

Symbolically this sentence can be expressed as

S = M’       (1)

This statement does not contain the symbol M, so Dr. Baez’s statement is not about magic at all.

We say that equation (1) is independent of M.

We note that M is not M'

M /= M'

This sentence simply attempts to define the word “science” with a new definition of magic. But it does not succeed because “magic that works” is not “magic”. The sentence ends up defining “magic” as “not magic.”

This form of definition is common in physics.

Also, there are more layers of hidden definitions in this sentence. When Dr. Baez says “science” he means "physics." And he reduces physics to equations. His sentence can be written as, “Physics equations are magic that actually works.”

Initially, he sets us up by saying that the symbols of an equation *seem* magical to a child and then with a sleight of hand he drops the word "seem" so that the sentence becomes "magic that works."

But this is not even true. There is nothing magical in physics equations. In fact a physics equation is the exact opposite of magic because all terms in an equation must be either actual numbers or must be placeholders for numbers. And those numbers must be properties of actual quantities existing in nature.

What may have looked like magic to a child may have been the abracadabra movement of symbols that physicist like to call "derivation." So, just by moving around symbols ceremoniously physicists claim to arrive at deep truths. In fact, derivation is nothing more than putting together the equations physicists have separated previously. We mentioned that physicists split equations again and again to create new definitions. This is the modern version of the old scholastic method of “splitting hairs.” Derivation is the reverse of this process, that is, the combining of previously split equations.

But the physics derivation is all pretend and nothing else. Something known is derived from other things that are known but were hidden by previous manipulations. By algebraic substitutions nothing new can be discovered.

There is nothing magical in derivation either. It is done by using the laws of algebra.

Science was born as an antidote to magic and it is still the opposite of magic. And science will never be "magic that works" because magic that works is not magic. The way a miracle that repeats is not a miracle but a natural phenomenon. So the sentence “a natural phenomenon is a miracle that repeats” can be a meaningful sentence to a physicist. Because it is of the same form as Dr. Baez’s sentence.


Why is this important? Why not accept this sentence as a bon mot and enjoy its ambiguity? Why take it so literally?

The reason is that physicists use this sentence form to define fundamental concepts of physics. For instance, they use it to define the concept of particle, one of the most fundamental concepts in physics. For instance, physicists can say something like "a particle is a wave." The form is the same.

P = Particle
W = Wave

P = W

We see that this is not an equation but a definition.

But particles do not exist in modern collider experiments. Only fields and waves exist. So the sentence "particle is a wave" is not even a definition, it is making two words synonyms. In this case the word "is" makes "particle" and "wave" synonyms. Wave has physical existence but particle does not. So, "particle" is defined as placeholder for the word "wave".

Once again we see that the equation is the Latin of physics. Physicists use it to hide information and as a rhetorical device to fit data into the doctrine.


--- The sentence occurs in The Math That Takes Newton Into the Quantum World:

But later, when I realized that by fiddling around with equations I could learn about the universe, I was hooked. The mysterious symbols seemed like magic spells. And in a way, they are. Science is the magic that actually works.

--- The equation: The loaded balance of physics

--- Wikipedia entry for George Boole

--- John Baez's blog.

Newton's Inertial motion hoax

The death of Newton's absurd assumption of inertial motion on a straight line:

To formulate [the principle of inertial motion] required a remarkable detachment from the world of experience, for such a motion is nowhere observed, ever, uniform motion in a straight line without any force acting upon the body.
It requires one to envisage a perfectly empty universe, with one sole object moving through space. It would then perform this inertial motion in a straight line. No-one could tell this because there would be no ruler and clock, and if there were, then the motion would no longer be in a straight line, because gravity would make it curve.

I dedicate this quote to all the Newtonian physics teachers still fanatically teaching this absurd notion of inertial motion on a straight line as a law of nature.


--- The quote is from Nick Kollerstrom, Isaac Newton: Science's Greatest Fraud, p.70)

Is god a topologist?

Assuming that someone designed the living creatures and calling that someone “god”, we ask if he is a topologist? We don't mean to imply that god was a he; this is the result of the sexist nature of the English language forcing us to choose a gender when we refer to somebody. In my native tongue of Turkish, for instance, we don't need to specify a gender for god unless we want to.

Let's forget about this loaded word "god" and call the designer of living beings “the designer.” (Let's agree to call this designer with male qualifiers of the English language for no other reason than convenience.)

We don't know if there is one designer or many designers. Let’s assume a single designer.

We don't know if the designer is still actively designing. We observe that nature constantly makes new design decisions but these may be automatic decisions not involving the original designer. It may be that the original designer designed the system and put it in motion and now he is watching from a distance and enjoying his system work flawlessly. Humans also create such self-sufficient --or adaptive-- systems that survive by making decisions to adapt to new conditions. We call it artificial intelligence. The original designer may be the ultimate master of artificial intelligence systems.

But here we are not interested in the workings of the whole system but in the original designs of the original designer because we want to point out a limitation in his designing process. It looks like he is not totally free to design any form he wishes to design but he must obey an important constraint. Let me try to explain.

In topology a mug and a doughnut are the same object because they transform into each other smoothly. When we look at the two genders, man and women, we see the same topological idea at work. Women have functional breasts and nipples. Men too have nipples but they are not functional. Our designer did not say, or could not say, "men don't need breasts and nipples because they don't nurse babies, so let me make men without nipples." No. He makes men's breasts as small as possible but still leaves the nipples. In men nipples are decorative.

Maybe not decorative; they are vestigial and useless.

But calling them vestigial makes a hidden assumption which may not be true. The assumption is that the non-functional design element was once functional but later lost its function and it “evolved” to be vestigial.

By using the same reasoning, people observe the vestigial tail bone coccyx in human vertebrae and conclude that humans once had a tail. I disagree. The coccyx, just like the male nipples, is the result of the topological design constraint that we are talking about.

As if the designer designed initially the most general blueprint for living organisms but he can make no change in the blueprint. He cannot delete (or add) any new specifications; he cannot get rid of the elements he is not using in an organism. So, he still must keep the nipples but he can reduce the size of the breasts. The same with the tail. The designer doesn’t want tails in humans but he cannot design a prototype without a tail because the tail element is in the original specifications, but he can make it as small as possible. These non-functional design elements exist because they are in the original specifications, not because they are vestigial.

Same with the reproductive organs of males and females. They are exactly like the mug and the doughnut, they can be transformed into each other smoothly.

Same with skeletons of different species. A bird skeleton can be transformed into human skeleton smoothly, all elements are there but in different proportions.

So we can speculate that the original designer of living things was a topologist. There are enough clues.


— About human tail Coccyx: Caudal vertebrae

--- "A bird skeleton can be transformed into human skeleton smoothly..." I'm not actually sure this is true exactly but human and bird skeletons look awfully similar. (Image source)
Skeletons of a man and a bird drawn to the same scale.
From The Strand Magazine published 1897.
--- Women have functional breasts and nipples. Men too have nipples but they are not functional. Why is it that the god or the designer did not or could not remove the useless male nipples? Did he not want to? Or was it impossible for him to remove them?
--- In this article we are supposing that there was a designer. This may not be the case.

Physics is a prediction game

1. Academic physics is a prediction game. 2. Physicists make predictions by rearranging the symbols in an equation and sooner or ...